Publikacije (18003)

Semra Palić, Wan-Yu Chu, Shyam Sundar, Dinesh Mondal, Pradeep Das, Krishna Pandey, Sheeraz Raja, S. Rijal et al.

INTRODUCTION Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) arises as a dermal complication following a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection. Current treatment options for PKDL are unsatisfactory, and there is a knowledge gap regarding the distribution of antileishmanial compounds within human skin. The present study investigated the skin distribution of miltefosine in PKDL patients, with the aim to improve the understanding of the pharmacokinetics at the skin target site in PKDL. METHODS Fifty-two PKDL patients underwent treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (20 mg/kg) plus miltefosine (allometric dosing) for 21 days. Plasma concentrations of miltefosine were measured on study days 8, 15, 22 and 30, while a punch skin biopsy was taken on day 22. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to evaluate the distribution of miltefosine into the skin. RESULTS Following the allometric weight-based dosing regimen, median miltefosine concentrations on day 22 were 43.73 µg/g (IQR: 21.94-60.65 µg/g) in skin and 33.29 µg/mL (IQR: 25.9-42.58 µg/mL) in plasma. The median individual concentration ratio of skin to plasma was 1.19 (IQR: 0.79-1.9). In 87% (45/52) of patients, skin exposure was above the suggested EC90 PK target of 10.6 mg/L associated with in vitro susceptibility. Simulations indicated that the residence time of miltefosine in the skin would be more than 2-fold longer than in plasma, estimated by a mean residence time of 604 versus 266 hours, respectively. CONCLUSION This study provides the first accurate measurements of miltefosine penetration into the skin, demonstrating substantial exposure and prolonged retention of miltefosine within the skin. These findings support the use of miltefosine in cutaneous manifestations of leishmaniasis. In combination with parasitological and clinical data, these results are critical for the future optimization of combination therapies with miltefosine in the treatment of PKDL.

Admir Čavalić, Dijana Husaković

The relationship between the civil and business sectors has intensified in the last few years, including cross-sectoral partnerships as part of corporate social responsibility. The authors examine the impact of these partnerships on the performance of 100 of the largest businesses in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Large companies were chosen because they are most likely to be involved with corporate social responsibility activities and cooperation with civil society organizations. Methodologically, the authors analyzed the effect of these partnerships on business performance using four Balanced Scorecard components - three non-financial and one financial performance. The research results show specific influences on non-financial business performance but not financial performance.

M. Suljkanović, J. Suljagić, Edita Bjelić, Ante Prkić, P. Bošković

Solvents prepared from natural terpenes (menthol and thymol), as H-bond acceptors, and a series of organic acids (chain lengths of 8, 10, and 14 C atoms), as H-bond donors, were characterized and tested as reaction media for liquid–liquid extraction purposes. Due to their high hydrophobicity, they seem to be promising alternatives to conventional (nonpolar and toxic) solvents, since they possess relatively less toxic, less volatile, and consequently, more environmentally friendly characteristics. Assuming that the equilibrium is established between solvent and analyte during a ligandless procedure, it can be concluded that those nonpolar solvents can efficiently extract nonpolar analytes from the aqueous environment. Previous investigations showed a wide range of applications, including their use as solvents in extractions of metal cations, small molecules, and bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, hydrophobic solvents based on natural terpenes, which showed chemical stability and desirable physicochemical and thermal properties, were chosen as potential reaction media in the liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) procedure for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Low viscosities and high hydrophobicities of prepared solvents were confirmed as desirable properties for their application. Extraction parameters were optimized, and chosen solvents were applied. The results showed satisfactory extraction efficiencies in simple and fast procedures, followed by low solvent consumption. The best results (98%) were obtained by the thymol-based solvent, thymol–decanoic acid (Thy-DecA) 1:1, followed by L-menthol-based solvents: menthol–octanoic acid (Men-OctA) 1:1 with 97% and menthol–decanoic acid (Men-DecA) 1:1 with 94.3% efficiency.

M. Barakovic, Matthias Weigel, A. Cagol, Sabine A. Schaedelin, R. Galbusera, Po-Jui Lu, Xinjie Chen, L. Melie-García et al.

N. Salkić, Mirela Bašić Denjagić, Nađa Zubčević, Renata Tamburić, Azra Husic - Selimovic, Emil Babić, M. Bevanda, Aida Saray et al.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), encompassing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), necessitates effective management strategies. This study aims to evaluate the real-world efficacy of vedolizumab, a newer biological therapy, in treating IBD in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A retrospective observational study was conducted across 6 medical centers, involving 139 IBD patients, 76 with UC and 63 with CD. Patients were assessed for clinical remission and other outcomes at the 26-week mark post vedolizumab treatment initiation. At 26 weeks, clinical remission was achieved in 82.9% of UC patients and 85.7% of CD patients. Mucosal healing was observed in 38.1% of CD patients. The efficacy of vedolizumab did not significantly differ based on prior anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) exposure. Notably, the clinical scoring tools for predicting vedolizumab response showed limited applicability in this cohort. Vedolizumab demonstrated high efficacy in treating both UC and CD in a real-world settings in Bosnia and Herzegovina, underscoring its potential as a significant therapeutic option in IBD management.

C. Zimmermann, Adrian Michelmann, Yannick Daniel, Markus D. Enderle, N. Salkić, W. Linzenbold

Background: The accurate delineation of ablation zones (AZs) is crucial for assessing radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy’s efficacy. Manual measurement, the current standard, is subject to variability and potential inaccuracies. Aim: This study aims to assess the effectiveness of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in automating AZ measurements in ultrasound images and compare its accuracy with manual measurements in ultrasound images. Methods: An in vitro study was conducted using chicken breast and liver samples subjected to bipolar RFA. Ultrasound images were captured every 15 s, with the AI model Mask2Former trained for AZ segmentation. The measurements were compared across all methods, focusing on short-axis (SA) metrics. Results: We performed 308 RFA procedures, generating 7275 ultrasound images across liver and chicken breast tissues. Manual and AI measurement comparisons for ablation zone diameters revealed no significant differences, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.96 in both tissues (p < 0.001). Bland–Altman plots and a Deming regression analysis demonstrated a very close alignment between AI predictions and manual measurements, with the average difference between the two methods being −0.259 and −0.243 mm, for bovine liver and chicken breast tissue, respectively. Conclusion: The study validates the Mask2Former model as a promising tool for automating AZ measurement in RFA research, offering a significant step towards reducing manual measurement variability.

S. Vranić, Zoran Gatalica

Oncologic treatment has recently undergone substantial therapeutic paradigm shifts, from classical tumor-specific and biomarker-agnostic approaches to more molecular, biomarker-specific, and tumor-agnostic. Tumor-type (histology) agnostic drugs work across cancer types and present a novel shift in precision oncology. Compared with traditional cancer therapies, this novel approach implies molecularly informed treatment strategies and enables targeted treatment regardless of tumor histology (type). Such drugs are usually utilized in small clinical cohorts with diverse tumor types sharing a common genomic event (molecular biomarker). One of the key elements of this approach is the presence of a common biomarker across many tumor types. Biomarker predicts response to the targeted drugs, as well as deciphers potential resistance mechanisms. Read more in the PDF.

Ismar Volic, Zixu Wang

Building on previous work, this paper extends the modeling of political structures from simplicial complexes to hypergraphs. This allows the analysis of more complex political dynamics where agents who are willing to form coalitions contain subsets that would not necessarily form coalitions themselves. We extend topological constructions such as wedge, cone, and collapse from simplicial complexes to hypergraphs and use them to study mergers, mediators, and power delegation in political structures. Concepts such as agent viability and system stability are generalized to the hypergraph context, alongside the introduction of the notion of local viability. Additionally, we use embedded homology of hypergraphs to analyze power concentration within political systems. Along the way, we introduce some new notions within the hypergraph framework that are of independent interest.

Mathilde Geysens, Benjamin Huremagic, E. Souche, J. Breckpot, Koenraad Devriendt, Hilde Peeters, G. Buggenhout, H. Esch et al.

Background: A subset of developmental disorders (DD) is characterized by disease-specific genome-wide methylation changes. These episignatures inform about underlying pathogenic mechanisms and can be used to assess the pathogenicity of genomic variants as well as confirm clinical diagnoses. Currently, episignature detection requires the use of indirect methylation profiling microarrays. We hypothesized that long-read whole genome sequencing would not only enable the detection of single nucleotide variants and structural variants but also episignatures. Methods: Genome-wide nanopore sequencing was performed in forty controls and twenty patients with confirmed or suspected episignature-associated DD, representing thirteen distinct diseases. Following variant and methylome calling, hierarchical clustering and dimensional reduction were used to determine the compatibility with microarray-based episignatures. Subsequently, we developed a support vector machine for each DD. Results: Nanopore sequencing based methylome patterns were concordant with microarray-based episignatures. Our classifier identified episignatures in 17/20 disease samples and none in the control samples. The remaining three patient samples were classified as controls by both our classifier and a commercial microarray assay. In addition, we identified all underlying pathogenic single nucleotide and structural variants and showed haplotype-aware skewed X-inactivation evaluation directs clinical interpretation. Conclusion: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates nanopore sequencing enables concurrent haplotyped genomic and epigenomic analyses.

Q. Xie, J. Niroula, Nitul Rajput, M. Yuan, S. Luo, Kai Fu, Mohamed Fadil Isamotu, Rafid Hassan Palash et al.

This Letter reports the device and material investigations of enhancement-mode p-GaN-gate AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for Venus exploration and other harsh environment applications. The GaN transistor in this work was subjected to prolonged exposure (11 days) in a simulated Venus environment (460 °C, 94 bar, complete chemical environment including CO2/N2/SO2). The mechanisms affecting the transistor performance and structural integrity in harsh environment were analyzed using a variety of experimental, simulation, and modeling techniques, including in situ electrical measurement (e.g., burn-in) and advanced microscopy (e.g., structural deformation). Through transistor, Transmission Line Method (TLM), and Hall-effect measurements vs temperature, it is revealed that the mobility decrease is the primary cause of reduction of on-state performance of this GaN transistor at high temperature. Material analysis of the device under test (DUT) confirmed the absence of foreign elements from the Venus atmosphere. No inter-diffusion of the elements (including the gate metal) was observed. The insights of this work are broadly applicable to the future design, fabrication, and deployment of robust III-N devices for harsh environment operation.

This paper investigates an autonomous discrete-time glycolytic oscillator model with a unique positive equilibrium point which exhibits chaos in the sense of Li–Yorke in a certain region of the parameters. We use Marotto’s theorem to prove the existence of chaos by finding a snap-back repeller. The illustration of the results is presented by using numerical simulations.

Nema pronađenih rezultata, molimo da izmjenite uslove pretrage i pokušate ponovo!

Pretplatite se na novosti o BH Akademskom Imeniku

Ova stranica koristi kolačiće da bi vam pružila najbolje iskustvo

Saznaj više