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Abstract Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is an extremely rare and poorly recognized neoplasm in children. A 5-year-old boy presented with a 1-year history of progressive painless abdominal distension. A CT revealed a 19 × 19 × 11 cm3 cystic mass in the right hemiabdomen, without infiltrating the surrounding structures. The tumor was completely removed by surgery. The microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed peritoneal mesothelioma. Comprehensive genomic profiling revealed no major driving mutations including BAP1, no fusions, but with amplifications of AURKA, AURKC, HLA-1B, ZNF-217, OR5F1 and MEN1 genes. Imaging follow-up 3 months after surgery revealed metastatic disease. The patient died of pneumonia at another hospital shortly after the last follow-up examination at our institution. Pediatric peritoneal mesothelioma is an extremely rare malignancy with limited targeted options and a poor prognosis. Some of the identified molecular genomic biomarkers require further exploration and validation in this cancer.

Michael Brauer, Gregory A. Roth, Aleksandr Y Aravkin, P. Zheng, K. H. Abate, Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate, C. Abbafati, Rouzbeh Abbasgholizadeh et al.

Till Bruckner, Daniel Sánchez, T. Suljic, O. Basegmez, Tungamirai Ishe Bvute, Carolina Cruz, Dominic Grzegorzek, Fabiola Karely Lizárraga-Illán et al.

Background Non-publication, incomplete publication and excessively slow publication of clinical trial outcomes contribute to research waste and can harm patients. While research waste in German academic trials is well documented, research waste in Germany related to a specific disease area across non-commercial and commercial sponsors has not previously been assessed. Methods In this cohort study, we used public records from three clinical trial registries to identify 70 completed or terminated clinical trials involving women with metastatic breast cancer with trial sites in Germany. We then searched registries and the literature for trial outcomes and contacted sponsors about unreported studies. Results We found that 66/70 trials (94.3%) had made their results public. Only 13/70 (18.6%) trials had reported results within one year of completion as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The outcomes of 4/70 trials (5.7%) had not been made public at all, but only one of those trials had recruited a significant number of patients. Conclusions Discussions about research waste in clinical trials commonly focus on weakly designed or unreported trials. We believe that late reporting of results is another important form of research waste. In addition, a discussion regarding the appropriate ethical and legal rules for reporting the results of terminated trials might add value. German legislation now requires sponsors to upload the results of some clinical trials onto a trial registry within one year of trial completion, but these laws only cover around half of all trials. Our findings highlight the potential benefits of extending the scope of national legislation to cover all interventional clinical trials involving German patients.

Solvents prepared from natural terpenes (menthol and thymol), as H-bond acceptors, and a series of organic acids (chain lengths of 8, 10, and 14 C atoms), as H-bond donors, were characterized and tested as reaction media for liquid–liquid extraction purposes. Due to their high hydrophobicity, they seem to be promising alternatives to conventional (nonpolar and toxic) solvents, since they possess relatively less toxic, less volatile, and consequently, more environmentally friendly characteristics. Assuming that the equilibrium is established between solvent and analyte during a ligandless procedure, it can be concluded that those nonpolar solvents can efficiently extract nonpolar analytes from the aqueous environment. Previous investigations showed a wide range of applications, including their use as solvents in extractions of metal cations, small molecules, and bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. In this work, hydrophobic solvents based on natural terpenes, which showed chemical stability and desirable physicochemical and thermal properties, were chosen as potential reaction media in the liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) procedure for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions. Low viscosities and high hydrophobicities of prepared solvents were confirmed as desirable properties for their application. Extraction parameters were optimized, and chosen solvents were applied. The results showed satisfactory extraction efficiencies in simple and fast procedures, followed by low solvent consumption. The best results (98%) were obtained by the thymol-based solvent, thymol–decanoic acid (Thy-DecA) 1:1, followed by L-menthol-based solvents: menthol–octanoic acid (Men-OctA) 1:1 with 97% and menthol–decanoic acid (Men-DecA) 1:1 with 94.3% efficiency.

N. Salkić, Predrag Jovanović, Mislav Barišić Jaman, Nedim Selimović, Frane Paštrović, Ivica Grgurević

Prediction of short-term mortality in patients with acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis could be improved. We aimed to develop and validate two machine learning (ML) models for predicting 28-day and 90-day mortality in patients hospitalized with acute decompensated liver cirrhosis. We trained two artificial neural network (ANN)-based ML models using a training sample of 165 out of 290 (56.9%) patients, and then tested their predictive performance against Model of End-stage Liver Disease-Sodium (MELD-Na) and MELD 3.0 scores using a different validation sample of 125 out of 290 (43.1%) patients. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for predicting 28-day mortality for the ML model was 0.811 (95%CI: 0.714- 0.907; p < 0.001), while the AUC for the MELD-Na score was 0.577 (95%CI: 0.435–0.720; p = 0.226) and for MELD 3.0 was 0.600 (95%CI: 0.462–0.739; p = 0.117). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for predicting 90-day mortality for the ML model was 0.839 (95%CI: 0.776- 0.884; p < 0.001), while the AUC for the MELD-Na score was 0.682 (95%CI: 0.575–0.790; p = 0.002) and for MELD 3.0 was 0.703 (95%CI: 0.590–0.816; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that ML-based models for predicting short-term mortality in patients with acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis perform significantly better than MELD-Na and MELD 3.0 scores in a validation cohort.

Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus ticks carry and transmit a wide range of pathogens to vertebrate hosts. Limited information is available about the existence of emerging tick-borne pathogens and the distribution of D. reticulatus in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study aimed to investigate the occurrence and distribution of D. reticulatus and to detect the presence of Anaplasma spp., Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. in samples originating from questing ticks and ticks collected from domestic animals in various regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A total of 402 collected D. reticulatus ticks were widely distributed throughout the country. Of the 41 pools consisting of 205 individual D. reticulatus ticks, 21 (51.2%) indicated the presence of Rickettsia spp., 17 (41.4%) of Babesia spp., 2 (4.8%) of Anaplasma spp., and 1 (2.4%) of B. burgdorferi s.l. after real-time PCR screening. Our study indicates that D. reticulatus has significantly expanded its distribution and host range in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Moreover, our results represent the first detection of Babesia spp. in D. reticulatus in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Given the demonstrated presence of emerging pathogens in questing and feeding ticks, there is an urge to establish a surveillance system for ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Ye Zhang, A. Win, E. Makalic, Daniel Buchanan, Rish Pai, Amanda Phipps, C. Rosty, Alex Boussioutas et al.

Šeila Bećirović Ramić, Ehlimana Cogo, Irfan Prazina, Emir Cogo, Muhamed Turkanović, Razija Turčinhodžić Mulahasanović, Saša Mrdović

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