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Aida Brankovic

Australian eHealth Research Centre CSIRO

Društvene mreže:

Polje Istraživanja: Machine learning Medicine and health

Amin Abbosh, K. Bialkowski, Lei Guo, Ahmed Al-Saffar, A. Zamani, A. Trakic, A. Brankovic, Alina Bialkowski, Guohun Zhu et al.

Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and early diagnosis and prompt medical intervention are thus crucial. Frequent monitoring of stroke patients is also essential to assess treatment efficacy and detect complications earlier. While computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used for stroke diagnosis, they cannot be easily used onsite, nor for frequent monitoring purposes. To meet those requirements, an electromagnetic imaging (EMI) device, which is portable, non-invasive, and non-ionizing, has been developed. It uses a headset with an antenna array that irradiates the head with a safe low-frequency EM field and captures scattered fields to map the brain using a complementary set of physics-based and data-driven algorithms, enabling quasi-real-time detection, two-dimensional localization, and classification of strokes. This study reports clinical findings from the first time the device was used on stroke patients. The clinical results on 50 patients indicate achieving an overall accuracy of 98% in classification and 80% in two-dimensional quadrant localization. With its lightweight design and potential for use by a single para-medical staff at the point of care, the device can be used in intensive care units, emergency departments, and by paramedics for onsite diagnosis.

Jessica Rahman, A. Brankovic, Mark Tracy, Robert Halliday, Sankalp Khanna

Accurate identification of the QRS complex is critical to analyse heart rate variability (HRV), which is linked to various adverse outcomes in premature infants. Reliable and accurate extraction of HRV characteristics at a large scale in the neonatal context remains a challenge. In this paper, we investigate the capabilities of 15 state-of-the-art QRS complex detection implementations using two real-world preterm neonatal datasets. As an attempt to improve the accuracy and reliability, we introduce a weighted ensemble-based method as an alternative. Obtained results indicate the superiority of the proposed method over the state of the art on both datasets with an F1-score of 0.966 (95% CI 0.962-0.97) and 0.893 (95% CI 0.892-0.894). This motivates the deployment of ensemble-based methods for any HRV-based analysis to ensure robust and accurate QRS complex detection.

A. Brankovic, Wenjie Huang, David Cook, Sankalp Khanna, K. Bialkowski

The lack of transparency and explainability hinders the clinical adoption of Machine learning (ML) algorithms. While explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) methods have been proposed, little research has focused on the agreement between these methods and expert clinical knowledge. This study applies current state-of-the-art explainability methods to clinical decision support algorithms developed for Electronic Medical Records (EMR) data to analyse the concordance between these factors and discusses causes for identified discrepancies from a clinical and technical perspective. Important factors for achieving trustworthy XAI solutions for clinical decision support are also discussed.

Christina J. Lauw, Jessica Rahman, A. Brankovic, Mark Tracy, Sankalp Khanna

Premature babies and those born with a medical condition are cared for within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in hospitals. Monitoring physiological signals and subsequent analysis and interpretation can reveal acute and chronic conditions for these neonates. Several advanced algorithms using physiological signals have been built into existing monitoring systems to allow clinicians to analyse signals in real time and anticipate patient deterioration. However, limited enhancements have been made to interactively visualise and adapt them to neonatal monitoring systems. To bridge this gap, we describe the development of a user-friendly and interactive dashboard for neonatal vital signs analysis written in the Python programming language where the analysis can be performed without prior computing knowledge. To ensure practicality, the dashboard was designed in consultation with a neonatologist to visualise electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation data in a time-series format. The resulting dashboard included interactive visualisations, advanced electrocardiogram analysis and statistical analysis which can be used to extract important information on patients’ conditions.Clinical Relevance— This will support the care of preterm infants by allowing clinicians to visualise and interpret physiological data in greater granularity, aiding in patient monitoring and detection of adverse conditions. The detection of adverse conditions could allow timely and potentially life-saving interventions for conditions such as sepsis and brain injury.

A. Brankovic, David Cook, Jessica Rahman, Wenjie Huang, Sankalp Khanna

The absence of transparency and explainability hinders the clinical adoption of Machine learning (ML) algorithms. Although various methods of explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) have been suggested, there is a lack of literature that delves into their practicality and assesses them based on criteria that could foster trust in clinical environments. To address this gap this study evaluates two popular XAI methods used for explaining predictive models in the healthcare context in terms of whether they (i) generate domain-appropriate representation, i.e. coherent with respect to the application task, (ii) impact clinical workflow and (iii) are consistent. To that end, explanations generated at the cohort and patient levels were analysed. The paper reports the first benchmarking of the XAI methods applied to risk prediction models obtained by evaluating the concordance between generated explanations and the trigger of a future clinical deterioration episode recorded by the data collection system. We carried out an analysis using two Electronic Medical Records (EMR) datasets sourced from Australian major hospitals. The findings underscore the limitations of state-of-the-art XAI methods in the clinical context and their potential benefits. We discuss these limitations and contribute to the theoretical development of trustworthy XAI solutions where clinical decision support guides the choice of intervention by suggesting the pattern or drivers for clinical deterioration in the future.

A. Brankovic, G. Hendrie, D. Baird, Sankalp Khanna

Background Engagement is key to interventions that achieve successful behavior change and improvements in health. There is limited literature on the application of predictive machine learning (ML) models to data from commercially available weight loss programs to predict disengagement. Such data could help participants achieve their goals. Objective This study aimed to use explainable ML to predict the risk of member disengagement week by week over 12 weeks on a commercially available web-based weight loss program. Methods Data were available from 59,686 adults who participated in the weight loss program between October 2014 and September 2019. Data included year of birth, sex, height, weight, motivation to join the program, use statistics (eg, weight entries, entries into the food diary, views of the menu, and program content), program type, and weight loss. Random forest, extreme gradient boosting, and logistic regression with L1 regularization models were developed and validated using a 10-fold cross-validation approach. In addition, temporal validation was performed on a test cohort of 16,947 members who participated in the program between April 2018 and September 2019, and the remaining data were used for model development. Shapley values were used to identify globally relevant features and explain individual predictions. Results The average age of the participants was 49.60 (SD 12.54) years, the average starting BMI was 32.43 (SD 6.19), and 81.46% (39,594/48,604) of the participants were female. The class distributions (active and inactive members) changed from 39,369 and 9235 in week 2 to 31,602 and 17,002 in week 12, respectively. With 10-fold-cross-validation, extreme gradient boosting models had the best predictive performance, which ranged from 0.85 (95% CI 0.84-0.85) to 0.93 (95% CI 0.93-0.93) for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and from 0.57 (95% CI 0.56-0.58) to 0.95 (95% CI 0.95-0.96) for area under the precision-recall curve (across 12 weeks of the program). They also presented a good calibration. Results obtained with temporal validation ranged from 0.51 to 0.95 for area under a precision-recall curve and 0.84 to 0.93 for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve across the 12 weeks. There was a considerable improvement in area under a precision-recall curve of 20% in week 3 of the program. On the basis of the computed Shapley values, the most important features for predicting disengagement in the following week were those related to the total activity on the platform and entering a weight in the previous weeks. Conclusions This study showed the potential of applying ML predictive algorithms to help predict and understand participants’ disengagement with a web-based weight loss program. Given the association between engagement and health outcomes, these findings can prove valuable in providing better support to individuals to enhance their engagement and potentially achieve greater weight loss.

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