8. 12. 2023.

2

We perform a systematic comparison between photoelectron momentum distributions computed with the rescattered-quantum orbit strong-field approximation (RQSFA) and the Coulomb-quantum orbit strong-field approximation (CQSFA). We exclude direct, hybrid, and multiple scattered CQSFA trajectories, and focus on the contributions of trajectories that undergo a single act of rescattering. For this orbit subset, one may establish a one-to-one correspondence between the RQSFA and CQSFA contributions for backscattered and forward-scattered trajectory pairs. We assess the influence of the Coulomb potential on the ionization and rescattering times of specific trajectory pairs, kinematic constraints determined by rescattering, and quantum interference between specific pairs of trajectories. We analyze how the Coulomb potential alters their ionization and return times, and their interference in photoelectron momentum distributions. We show that Coulomb effects are not significant for high or medium photoelectron energies and shorter orbits, while, for lower momentum ranges or longer electron excursion times in the continuum, the residual Coulomb potential is more important. We also assess the agreement of both theories for different field parameters, and show that it improves with the increase of the wavelength.

21. 9. 2023.

1

Using a strong-field-approximation theory, we investigate the high-order above-threshold ionization of diatomic molecules exposed to the monochromatic and bichromatic elliptically polarized fields. We devote particular attention to the difference between the photoelectron momentum distributions obtained with fields with opposite helicity. This difference is quantified using the elliptic-dichroism parameter, which represents the normalized difference between the differential ionization rates calculated with driving fields with opposite helicity. We find that this parameter strongly depends on the molecular orientation with respect to the laser field. In addition, this dependence is different for molecules with different types of highest-occupied molecular orbital. In other words, we show that the molecular structure is imprinted onto the elliptic-dichroism parameter for both monochromatic and bichromatic driving fields. This is explained by analyzing the interferences between various partial contributions to the differential ionization rate. In this way, elliptic dichroism also serves as a tool to analyze the electron dynamics. Finally, for heteronuclear diatomic molecules, we show that the elliptic dichroism is different from zero even for the direct electrons, i.e., the electrons that after liberation go directly to the detector. In this case, the dependence on the molecular orientation is far more pronounced for a bichromatic driving field.

12. 7. 2023.

0

The contributions of two energetically highest molecular orbitals to the harmonic emission rate are analysed for a two-component laser field. For diatomic molecules exposed to the elliptically polarised field, the emission from the highest-occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) is dominant for various molecular orientations with respect to the laser field. However, the contribution of the lower molecular orbital (HOMO-1) can become significant or even dominant for some molecular orientations. We introduce the ratio of the coherent over the incoherent sum of the HOMO and HOMO-1 contributions as a quantitative measure of the significance of the particular molecular orbital. Also, the gaseous medium response is different for the left and right elliptically polarised light and the molecular characteristics are imprinted into this difference. Moreover, for the orthogonally polarised two-colour (OTC) laser field the relative contributions of HOMO and HOMO-1 depend to a great extent on the relative phase between the field components. The importance of the HOMO-1 can be assessed by the relative error which is made if the harmonic spectra are obtained only with the HOMO contribution. Finally, we investigate the interference of the contributions of two highest molecular orbitals. We show that, for the OTC field, the destructive interference depends linearly on the intensity of the field components. Also, the interference minima shift towards the higher energies with the increase of the component wavelength.

Nondipole Effects in Atomic Ionization Induced by an Intense Counter‐Rotating Bicircular Laser Field

31. 1. 2023.

1

Nondipole effects occurring in the process of atomic ionization by an intense, mid‐infrared, counter‐rotating bicircular laser field are investigated using the strong‐field approximation with leading‐order nondipole corrections. The time integrals appearing in the expression for the differential ionization rate are computed in two ways: numerically, and by applying the saddle‐point approximation. The nondipole corrections introduce an asymmetry in the photoelectron momentum distribution along the field propagation direction. The asymmetry is quantified by the partial average value of the propagation‐direction momentum component of the photoelectrons and by the normalized difference of the differential ionization rates computed including and excluding the nondipole corrections. Using the saddle‐point approximation, it is investigated how the nondipole corrections change the solutions for direct photoelectrons and how this affects the momentum spectra. The impact of nondipole corrections increases with increasing photoelectron energy. Analysis of the complete photoelectron spectra including both direct and rescattered photoelectrons shows that, in the low‐energy region, a shift against the propagation direction occurs. The partial average of the propagation–direction momentum component in the rescattering region exhibits a plateau structure and also a local minimum structure that was recently observed in an experiment with a linearly polarized laser field (Lin et al., Phys Rev. Lett. 128, 023201 (2022)).

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