User Name

Alan Maksimović

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sarajevo

Društvene mreže:

Ismar Lutvikadić, D. Preldžić, Alan Maksimović

An atrioventricular valve insufficiency is a common form of cardiac disorder in mammals, whereas it has rarely been reported in reptiles. A two-year-old male bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) was presented with acute onset of lethargy, inappetence and general weakness, increased respiratory effort, dark skin color, and arched back. A gastrointestinal foreign body was suspected, but radiography showed coelomic fluid accumulation. Ultrasound heart examination revealed turbulent blood flow at the level of the atrioventricular valves. Electrocardiography by modified Einthoven lead system (lead configuration 1) as described for Squamata, did not show significant changes. A tentative diagnosis of congestive heart failure as a result of valvulopathy was made. Treatment consisted of parenteral furosemide and fluid administration and assisted feeding with appropriate food intended for adult bearded dragons. The patient was weekly evaluated and successfully recovered over the four months. Echocardiography and electrocardiography were repeated 12 months later. The prescribed treatment was successful with complete resolution of clinical signs, and long-term surveillance of the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

Nermina Spahija, Ismar Lutvikadić, Adna Ćoso, Alan Maksimović

In previous years interest has grown in investigating the attitudes and capabilities of veterinarians regarding the recognition, quantification and treatment of animal pain throughout different parts of the world and encompassing various species. This is the first report exploring the attitudes and self-rated abilities of veterinarians in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) concerning recognition and quantification of pain in domestic animals. A study questionnaire was made available to 535 general practice veterinarians throughout B&H and 73 (14%) responded in full. The questionnaire contained polar, multiple choice, ordinal and interval scale questions and consisted of sections asking about demographic data, attitudes to pain recognition and quantification, use and availability of analgesics, estimates of pain intensity during specific surgical procedures, and the perceived need for pain assessment and continuing education programmes for analgesia. Half of the respondents considered the recognition and quantification of pain to be difficult while 89% did not make use of pain assessment scales. Of the respondents, (33/73; 45%) felt a certain level of pain to be advantageous since it reduces the activity of the healing animal, whereas 52% (38/73) did not agreed with this concept. Cost was a consideration when deciding whether or not to use analgesics for 58% (42/73) of the respondents with the most commonly used types being NSAIDs (72/73;99%) and opioids (60/73; 82%). Practitioners in B&H displayed awareness of the importance of pain assessment and management however a significant proportion were unaware of pain scales and relied upon physiological indicators of pain.

Alan Maksimović, M. Nurkic, Z. Maksimovic, M. Rifatbegović

Little is known about vaginal and uterine bacteria in clinically healthy cats and their correlation with different stages of the oestrus cycle. The differences in vaginal bacterial flora between household and stray queens remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of vaginal and uterine bacteria in clinically healthy household and stray queens and to correlate culture findings with specific stages of the oestrous cycle. Vaginal and uterine samples from 40 clinically healthy queens were collected for isolation of bacteria and cytological examination. Bacteria were isolated from 31 vaginal swabs (77.5%) from stray (16/20; 80%) and household (15/20; 75%) cats. The isolates were more frequently detected in pure culture (18/31; 58%) than in mixed cultures (13/31; 41.9%). Streptococcus spp. was the most commonly identified bacteria (n = 16; 51.6%), followed by coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (n = 15; 48.4%) and E. coli (n = 12; 38.7%). A mixed bacterial culture of E. coli and Streptococcus spp. was commonly detected (50%), mainly in households (66.7%), whereas a mixed culture of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. (41.6%) was commonly isolated from stray cats (60%).  The frequency of isolation of pure or mixed bacterial cultures and the isolates did not vary significantly during the different stages of the oestrus cycle. All uterine samples tested were negative for bacteria. This study identified the most common bacteria in the vagina of clinically healthy cats. The isolation of vaginal bacteria in pure or mixed cultures should be considered as normal finding. The stage of the oestrous cycle apparently does not affect vaginal bacterial flora. Vaginal bacteria may differ between stray and households cats. No bacteria can be isolated from the uterus of clinically healthy cats.

Ismar Lutvikadić, Alan Maksimović

This study aimed to assess the efficiency of ketamine and medetomidine by two different doses and routes on anesthesia depth and cardiac stability in red-eared sliders. Each turtle was anesthetized two times, with seven days wash-out period. Induction of anesthesia consisted of a bolus combination of ketamine (10 mg/kg) and medetomidine (0.2 mg/kg) administered in the left brachial biceps in the intramuscular protocol, or a bolus combination of ketamine (20 mg/kg) and medetomidine (0.2 mg/kg) administered in subcarapacial sinus after clear blood presence confirmation in the intravenous protocol. Vital signs, reaction on the skin palpation, manual mouth opening for endotracheal intubation, palpebral and cloacal reflex, and the withdrawal reflex of the front and hind limbs were measured and recorded every 5 minutes for 60 minutes after anesthesia injection. Atipamezole (1 mg/kg) was administered in the right brachial biceps one hour after ketamine and medetomidine administration. Needle insertion and possible painful reactions to drug administration were also evaluated and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed for normality and paired t-tests, Wilcoxon, or McNamar tests were performed where appropriate. The values of P ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. A significantly less pronounced decrease in heart rate was observed with intravenous anesthesia protocol. Both protocols recorded complete anesthesia recovery 60 minutes after intramuscular atipamezole administration. A ketamine-medetomidine dose combination administered intravenously provides a more stable and consistent anesthetic plane in red-eared sliders than ketamine-medetomidine administered intramuscularly.

Ismar Lutvikadić, Nermina Spahija, Alan Maksimović

A case of umbilical hernia in a 7-month-old female rabbit was presented to the Surgery Clinic of the Veterinary Faculty, University of Sarajevo. The owner noticed inappetence and lethargy four days before arrival at the clinic. Clinical parameters on physical examination were within the physiological range. Bruxism and lethargy were noted as signs of discomfort due to gas accumulation in colon. A reponible, nonpainful mass in the umbilical scar area was palpated but intestinal peristalsis was not altered. General anesthesia was induced by intramuscular administration of ketamine with medetomidine and maintained with isoflurane. Surgical treatment of hernia included the peritoneal sac dissection and amputation, repositioning of small intestines, and correction of abdominal wall defect. Intraoperative multimodal analgesia approach was used to reduce inhalant anesthesia requirements and to prevent pain-related and stress-related complications. In this case report we described a surgical and veterinary treatment of the reponible umbilical hernia in a rabbit.

Amila Šunje-Rizvan, Amina Rizvanović, Ismar Lutvikadić, A. Livnjak, Nermina Spahija, Alan Maksimović

This case report describes the remission of the fibrovascular corneal lesions in both eyes after bilateral superficial keratectomy combined with medical treatment in a German Shepherd dog. A completely blind German Shepherd dog diagnosed with chronic superficial keratitis (CSK, pannus) underwent bilateral superficial keratectomy along with subconjunctival administration of 0.1 mL of bevacizumab and mitomycin C, which where topically applied over the degenerated area of the cornea. Following the surgical procedure, cyclosporine topical ointment was given daily as life-long therapy. Notable improvements in behavior and physical activity were evident in the patient three to four weeks after the treatment. During a follow-up period over 24 months, complete remission of the fibrovascular corneal lesions was observed in both eyes, with minor seasonal conjunctival hyperemia successfully managed by administering dexamethasone and mitomycin C eye drops. This is the first report of using this specific combination of drugs during and after keratectomy in the dog, resulting in remission of CSK with no reported side effects. Superficial keratectomy, along with the administration of bevacizumab via subconjunctival injection, may present a novel approach for addressing superficial corneal neovascularization in dogs.

Nermina Spahija, Ismar Lutvikadić, Adna Ćoso, Selma Filipović, Alan Maksimović

Over the past decades, recognised importance of prompt and valid pain recognition and quantification in veterinary medicine significantly increased interest in investigating attitudes and self-rated abilities of veterinarians towards pain assessment. However, giving that the owners are the ones who decide when to call the veterinarian, it is also essential to investigate their attitudes and knowledge regarding pain recognition and management. This is the first research investigating horse owners’ attitudes and self-rated abilities towards pain assessment and management in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The participants were invited via email or social media with attached link to online questionnaire created using the Google Forms platform. Surveyed population included adult sport or pleasure horse owners, and horse caretakers in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Study response rate was 33.33% (40 respondents). The questionnaire consisted of sections asking about respondents’ demographic data, general pain assessment and management, and attitudes towards pain assessment done by veterinarians compared with theirs. Study respondents considered their abilities for pain recognition and quantification as sufficient and sufficient/moderate, even though most of them were unfamiliar with pain scales, and only negligible number use them. This study indicates the need and importance of owners' education concerning pain recognition and quantification in horses, and their more effective communication with veterinarians.

Ismar Lutvikadić, Alan Maksimović

The information regarding the risk of anesthesia-related death in veterinary medicine is scarce, and little is known about the mortality risk of specific anesthetics. The study conducted during 2019 at University of Sarajevo, Veterinary faculty, aimed to estimate the mortality risk of intermittent injectable ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in dogs and to investigate the potential relationship between mortality rate and anesthesiologists’ experience. Anesthetic records, where ketamine and xylazine combination was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, were reviewed and divided into two groups: inexperienced (AN1) and experienced anesthesiologists (AN2). Inexperienced anesthesiologists were constantly supervised by experienced ones, whose corrective interventions were recorded. Overall detected mortality rate was 0.15%, with 0.18% and 0.11% in the AN1 and AN2 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was not found. Records of the AN1 group revealed interventions of experienced anesthesiologist in 92% of cases. Detected mortality rate was within the values previously established for inhalant anesthesia indicating high safety in usage of investigated protocol, if performed by experienced anesthesiologists. The high percentage of interventions of a senior anesthesiologist suggests that supervised upskilling of inexperienced anesthesiologists before their independent work could result in a better outcome.

Z. Maksimović, Alan Maksimović, Ismar Lutvikadić, M. Rifatbegović

Little is known about the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a canary bird (Serinus canarius domesticus). Although MRSA in a canary bird was previously reported, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first full description of the isolation and antibiotic resistance pattern of MRSA in this pet bird. A swab was taken from the nonhealing wound on the lateral thigh of a four-year-old, caged, housed alone, male canary bird. After the identification of Staphylococcus aureus, the antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolate was obtained by the disk diffusion test. According to the resistance to Oxacillin and Cefoxitin, the isolate was identified as MRSA. The mecA gene was confirmed by PCR. The bird was treated by offering drinking water medicated with an injectable enrofloxacin formulation at 200 mg/L over 10 days period. Two weeks after therapy, intensive contraction of the wound was observed with a reduction in size. A week later, the complete epithelization of the wound defect was verified. In this study, we could not confirm the source of infection in a canary bird, but we believe that transmission was from wild birds when the cage was putting out in order to allow the bird to sunbathe or more likely via contact with the owner. The results of this study underline the necessity for further investigations on the epidemiological role of canary birds as potential reservoirs of MRSA.

P. Bejdić, N. Hadžimusić, S. Šerić-Haračić, Alan Maksimović, Ismar Lutvikadić, A. Hrković-Porobija

that the air sacs. The morphology of the air sacs system has been described in many domestic and wild bird Abstract | The research was conducted with the aim to investigate the morphology of air sacs system in Crimson Rosella ( Platycercus elegans ) parrots. Five adult birds, two males and three females were used in this study. The lungs and air sac system were injected via trachea with 26% solution of Vinylite mass. The obtained cast showed that these parrots have nine air sacs. The clavicular air sac was the only unpaired, while the cervical, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs were paired. The morphology of the air sacs was generally similar to that reported in other bird species, however, some specific features were identified. As most prominent among them were a partial fusion of the cervical air sacs, communication between the left and right subpectoral and perirenal diverticula and connection between the claviclar and cranial thoracic air sacs. The present investigation provided detailed and comprehensive data about the morphology of air sacs system in these parrot species and these findings will be very useful for future clinical examination and treatment of this birds.


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