User Name

Ramiza Smajic

University of Sarajevo

Društvene mreže:

Remzija Hadžiefendić-Parić, Ramiza Smajić

The topic is romantic travelogues with the subject of Bosnia: descriptions andinsights into the perceived “reality” of the Bosnian area and people of the19th century presented through linguistic and stylistic means and on examples of selected travelogues from that period. New historical experiences of the writer opened the way for the emotional reception of collective practices of people, and this often leads to ahistorical conceptualization and long-lasting stereotypes. Considering that both linguistic activity and historical memory are mutual psychological processes, the diverse strategic character of the travel discourse through research shows that known cultural patterns can often deceive with their simplified form.

At the end of 2018, Gazi Husrev-bey library in Sarajevo and the renowned institution for historical research in the Republic of Turkey, Türk Tarih Kurumu, signed a protocol on cooperation on the project of preparing and publishing the regesta of the voluminous manuscript Tārīẖ-i Enveri, History of Muhamed Enveri Kadić. For the next four years, both of these institutions, which kept the first copies of the History, undertook a series of activities in order to realize the signed project. On January 13, 2023, the Gazi Husrev-bey library marked its 486th anniversary by promoting the planned and completed part of the work. The fact that the name and work of this special archivist, copyist, poet, epigrapher and bibliophile was known in detail by a limited number of people outside the fields of Orientalism, Ottoman studies and history, imposes the need to present, in a concise form, his character, work and visions.

This text is a review of a book Mujo Koštić's Lexicon of Elementary School Teachers in Sarajevo from 1878 to 1918, Sarajevo: National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2020.

The end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century was marked by radical changes on the demographic map of the Bosnian Eyalet as a serhat of the Ottoman state. In addition to mass migrations of the Muslim population from the lost Ottoman territories towards the interior of the Bosnian Eyalet, there were also continuous movements of the Christian population in the opposite direction. The paper follows the movements of some groups of Christians, mainly those who respond to the bishop's call to settle the desolate areas around Pécs, Szeged, Baja and the surrounding area, but also the migration of other non-Muslim populations towards the Venetian territory, as well as migrations to the „Imperial lands“ due to various political, economic and other factors. While the Venetian government encouraged, with money and investiture, the people to bring families to Dalmatia, and the Austrian government received petitions from the priests of Bosnian monasteries about the difficult situation of Catholics, the Ottoman government throughout that time undertook activities to stop defections, therefore, the paper describes some of the procedures and the situations themselves. Some authors exaggerate when they say that, for example, between 100 and 200 thousand Catholics left Bosnia. The paper shows that according to some reports, 74 thousand Catholics lived in Bosnia before 1683, and 25 thousand half a century later. This is an acceptable number of emigrant Catholics compared to the exaggerations of some chroniclers. An important part of the work is the knowledge obtained from sources, who actually are the non-Muslims that go across the border from the interior and from the borders of the Bosnian Eyalet. Ottoman sources usually refer to both Catholics and Orthodox by the name „kefere“ (a collective noun denoting the non-Muslim population in general). For the Ottoman administration, the most important thing is that it is a category of non-Muslims in order to tax them according to that category. Due to such a situation, it is difficult to give a definitive number of Catholics or Orthodox in a certain period according to Ottoman sources. In the paper, we provide a limited analysis of the case according to some unpublished sources, so it can be seen how many Christians, heads of the household, remained in a certain area. Often, however, it is not possible to know whether they are Orthodox or Catholics, because there are no priests among them. Names are often a problem, too, because patronymics are rare, and names can be tied to a nomenclature common to both Catholicism and Orthodoxy. From the episcopal and friar reports, it can be seen that in that period, the conversion of Muslims also took place, so among the migrants to the north, for example, there were thousands of new Christians. The cities of Požega, Osijek and Brod also lost their Muslim population and hundreds of Catholics from Sarajevo, Kreševo, Modriča and Vrhbosna are coming to them. Registry books record their origin, especially in the first years of the 18th century. The Orthodox and Catholic population from the Herzegovina Sandžak settles mainly in the Boka Kotorska area. An extensive cadastral census from 1701 shows that among the people there are many who come from places that are not affected by war activities. The Orthodox population from Backa and Baranja goes to Slavonia and Srijem, but also to Ottoman territory. On the territory of the Republic of Dubrovnik, war refugees from the Bosnian ejalet are most often Vlachs, especially during the periods of the Moravian War (1684-1699) and the Venetian-Ottoman War (1714-1718). The Ottoman authorities demanded that these people be delivered to them, and the Dubrovnik authorities formally agreed, but they often helped the people to stay there or to go further by sea.

The break-up of Yugoslavia and the period of transition more generally have resulted in differential profiling of Balkan historians, in how they approach certain processes in the past, work on the darker aspects of history, changing perspectives, degrees of awareness and of education, as well as standards in current and future work. This politicisation of their approach to and tendentious formulation of issues has entailed the imposition of a forced symmetry when dealing with already sensitive themes. It raises general questions about the responsibility of the historian, while at the same time bringing to light the set of preconditions that informs the action and effectiveness of historians and entire institutions at the local level. Historians have been facing the challenge of fragmentation for some time and it is reflected not just in the results of their historiographical work, but also directly in generations of their students.

Review: „Bilo bi bolje da nismo uopće došli i da nismo ništa učinili“. Guillaume Ancel, Vent Glacial sur Sarajevo (Memoires de Guerre), Les Belles Lettres, Paris 2017, 224 str.

More than a quarter of a century after the international recognition of Bosnia and Herzegovina as an independent state outside of Yugoslavia, a period for a comparative analysis of historiographic results is appropriate. In this paper, attention is devoted to the treatment of Bosnian territory in various social frameworks, financial and personnel capacities, affinities and ideological orientations. Certain areas of scientific work, of course, had a natural sequence of activities, some needed to be adjusted, while approaches and focus in some fields developed completely new forms in the spirit of contemporary osmanism. The planned exhibition is a collection of practical experiences in the field of the Ottoman work in both the Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav periods.

ABSTRACT THE CHURCHES AND EARLY OTTOMAN GOVERNANCE IN BOSNIA: THE REALITY AND HISTORIOGRAPHICGENERALISATIONS IN 20TH CENTURY  Biased approaches to Bosnian historiography in general, strong nationalist sentiments and excessive interpretations of certain phenomena have produced a number of disagreements berween scholars. This refers especially to the Bosnian religious history.The purpose of my paper is twofold. It examines modem hisroriography of the early Ottoman Bosnia, and attempts to open some new venues to the study of the encounters berween different religious communities and their representatives. In the first two centuries of Ottoman rule, the attitude of Ottoman center towards confessional structure of Bosnian society, is a result of political, economic and social circumstances an one hand, and the result of the Ottoman strategy of accepring some local in stitutions and including some non -Muslim elements into the military class 0n the other. My paper consists of an overview of the confessional structure in Bosnia, and an analysis of the relationship between the two churches (Catholic and Orthodox) in the Balkans, focusing on the encounter between Ottoman State, Catholics, and Orthodox Christians. Key Words: Bosnia, ottoman period, religious communities

L. Gazić, Ramiza Smajić

Les litteratures en arabe, turc et persan sont bien representees en Bosnie-Herzegovine, qui garde le souvenir de l'epoque ou elle faisait partie de l'empire ottoman. La bibliotheque Gazi Husrev Bey, la plus ancienne a Sarajevo, conserve une importante collection de manuscrits, qui a ete epargnee par la guerre de 1992-95 ; la publication du catalogue a pu reprendre en 1998. L'Institut oriental et ses 5263 manuscrits, ses documents d'archive qui comptaient plus de 300 000 unites, les inventaires et documents laisses par les chercheurs, a quant a lui ete totalement detruit en mai 1992. II existe d'autres collections plus petites, dont les catalogues sont en cours de redaction. La Bibliotheque nationale et universitaire a egalement ete detruite en 1992, mais le fonds de manuscrits, dont 400 sont orientaux, a pu etre sauve. Cependant leurs conditions de conservation ne sont pas bonnes et ils sont pas encore hors de danger.


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