Postdoktorand, Université de Strasbourg

Polje Istraživanja: Astronomy Gravitational astronomy Physical cosmology

Université de Strasbourg

Postdoktorand

1. 12. 2023.

3

Amel Durakovic,
C. Skordis

The Aether-Scalar-Tensor (AeST) theory is an extension of General Relativity (GR) which can support Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) behaviour in its static weak-field limit, and cosmological evolution resembling ΛCDM. We consider static spherically symmetric weak-field solutions in this theory and show that the resulting equations can be reduced to a single equation for the gravitational potential. The reduced equation has apparent isolated singularities at the zeros of the derivative of the potential and we show how these are removed by evolving, instead, the canonical momentum of the corresponding Hamiltonian system that we find. We construct solutions in three cases: (i) in vacuum outside a bounded spherical object, (ii) within an extended prescribed source, and (iii) for an isothermal gas in hydrostatic equilibrium, serving as a simplified model for galaxy clusters. We show that the oscillatory regime that follows the Newtonian and MOND regimes, obtained in previous works in the vacuum case, also persists for isothermal spheres, and we show that the gas density profiles in AeST can become more compressed than their Newtonian or MOND counterparts. We construct the Radial Acceleration Relation (RAR) in AeST for isothermal spheres and find that it can display a peak, an enhancement with respect to the MOND RAR, at an acceleration range determined by the value of the AeST weak-field mass parameter, the mass of the system and the boundary value of the gravitational potential. For lower accelerations, the AeST RAR drops below the MOND expectation, as if there is a negative mass density. Similar observational features of the galaxy cluster RAR have been reported. This illustrates the potential of AeST to address the shortcomings of MOND in galaxy clusters, but a full quantitative comparison with observations will require going beyond the isothermal case.

22. 11. 2017.

5

We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation is direction-dependent. To first order this is parameterised by a quadrupolar modulation of the power spectrum and results in statistical anisotropy of the CMB, which can be quantified using `bipolar spherical harmonics'. We compute these for the Planck DR2-2015 SMICA map and estimate the noise covariance from Planck Full Focal Plane 9 simulations. A constant quadrupolar modulation is detected with 2.2 σ significance, dropping to 2σ when the primordial power is assumed to scale with wave number k as a power law. Going beyond previous work we now allow the spectrum to have arbitrary scale-dependence. Our non-parametric reconstruction then suggests several spectral features, the most prominent at k ∼ 0.006 Mpc−1. When a constant quadrupolar modulation is fitted to data in the range 0.005 ⩽ k/Mpc−1 ⩽ 0.008, its preferred directions are found to be related to the cosmic hemispherical asymmetry and the CMB dipole. To determine the significance we apply two test statistics to our reconstructions of the quadrupolar modulation from data, against reconstructions of realisations of noise only. With a test statistic sensitive only to the amplitude of the modulation, the reconstructions from the multipole range 30 ⩽ ℓ ⩽ 1200 are unusual with 2.1σ significance. With the second test statistic, sensitive also to the direction, the significance rises to 6.9σ. Our approach is easily generalised to include other data sets such as polarisation, large-scale structure and forthcoming 21-cm line observations which will enable these anomalies to be investigated further.

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