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Publikacije (19596)

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A. Jocić, Slađana Marić, Danijela Tekić, T. Lazarević-Pašti, Jasmina Mušović, Jelena Filipović Tričković, Aleksandra Dimitrijević

Chiara Vergata, E. Karalija, Francesco Caleri, Mattia Calvani, A. Piergiovanni, Federico Martinelli

Chickpea and lentils are one of the most important legumes not only as sources of food and nutrients but also for enrichment of soil as a nitrogen fixating crop. An early onset of higher temperatures and drought are affecting chickpea and lentil growth and flowering leading to reduction of yield. In search for a tolerant varieties presented study performed a large-scale screening of two legume varieties (chickpea and lentils) investigating phenotypical response to early onset of drought under heat stress. Under heat stress and two different irrigation conditions, 19 chickpea and 18 lentil accessions were examined. The evaluation focused on their growth, biomass production, and flowering rate in comparison to commercially available varieties. Six chickpea accessions showed tolerance to water stress while only two lentil accessions differed from the rest of tested accessions. Generally, lentils genotypes were less stressed by decreased water availability compared to chickpea. Large scale screening of legume accessions could be a valuable tool to identify new varieties that could show phenotypical traits more adaptable to climate related environmental stresses. To improve the reproductive efficiency in chickpeas and lentils under adverse conditions associated to climate change an extensive breeding effort should be focused on investigation of more tolerant genotypes and cultivation in crop systems.

Eldar Kurtic, Amir Moeini, Dan Alistarh

We introduce Mathador-LM, a new benchmark for evaluating the mathematical reasoning on large language models (LLMs), combining ruleset interpretation, planning, and problem-solving. This benchmark is inspired by the Mathador game, where the objective is to reach a target number using basic arithmetic operations on a given set of base numbers, following a simple set of rules. We show that, across leading LLMs, we obtain stable average performance while generating benchmark instances dynamically, following a target difficulty level. Thus, our benchmark alleviates concerns about test-set leakage into training data, an issue that often undermines popular benchmarks. Additionally, we conduct a comprehensive evaluation of both open and closed-source state-of-the-art LLMs on Mathador-LM. Our findings reveal that contemporary models struggle with Mathador-LM, scoring significantly lower than average 5th graders. This stands in stark contrast to their strong performance on popular mathematical reasoning benchmarks.

Adam J. Widman, Minita Shah, A. Frydendahl, Daniel Halmos, C. C. Khamnei, N. Øgaard, Srinivas Rajagopalan, Anushri Arora et al.

Gender equality is a democratic and civilizational standard, and mechanisms to implement gender mainstreaming have been established in many countries around the world, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. International mechanisms and women's civil society organizations are the main carriers of these changes, but the real impact of gender mainstreaming depends on the ability of institutions and the commitment of policy makers to move gender from the margins to the center in setting public policy at all levels of government. Unfortunately, across globally, the norm and practice diverge, especially at the local level. In the countries of the Western Balkans, these problems are even more pronounced and insufficiently articulated in academic research. Therefore, this paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted in local communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research included an analysis of legal provisions at the local level and interviews with relevant stakeholders (women activists and members of local equality commissions). The analysis shows that gender equality is addressed in a fragmented and inconsistent manner, that it is not adequately addressed in local documents, and that local gender mechanisms (commissions for gender equality) have been formed to fulfill a formal obligation. In communities with no profiled women's organizations, the situation is even worse when it comes to the possibility of monitoring and improving the work of these mechanisms.

Georgios Sotirchos, Zlatan Ajanović

Robot motion planning is a challenging domain as it involves dealing with high-dimensional and continuous search space. In past decades, a wide variety of planning algorithms have been developed to tackle this problem, sometimes in isolation without comparing to each other. In this study, we benchmark two such prominent types of algorithms: OMPL's sampling-based RRT-Connect and SMPL's search-based ARA* with motion primitives. To compare these two fundamentally different approaches fairly, we adapt them to ensure the same planning conditions and benchmark them on the same set of planning scenarios. Our findings suggest that sampling-based planners like RRT-Connect show more consistent performance across the board in high-dimensional spaces, whereas search-based planners like ARA* have the capacity to perform significantly better when used with a suitable action-space sampling scheme. Through this study, we hope to showcase the effort required to properly benchmark motion planners from different paradigms thereby contributing to a more nuanced understanding of their capabilities and limitations. The code is available at https://github.com/gsotirchos/benchmarking_planners

The political systems of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, and Lebanon are defined by ethnic or religious divides that have historical roots in their Ottoman and European colonial past. This paper aims to investigate the impact of these historical legacies on popular representation and institutional structures. The Ottomans and European colonizers created institutions that allowed subjects to elect their representatives, shaping these countries' initial experiences with modernity. This paper employs historical institutionalism as a theoretical approach, and path dependency as a methodology to explore how historical legacies have shaped the political institutions and power‐sharing arrangements in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, and Lebanon.

Heuristic search is often used for motion planning and pathfinding problems, for finding the shortest path in a graph while also promising completeness and optimal efficiency. The drawback is it's space complexity, specifically storing all expanded child nodes in memory and sorting large lists of active nodes, which can be a problem in real-time scenarios with limited on-board computation. To combat this, we present the Search with Learned Optimal Pruning-based Expansion (SLOPE), which, learns the distance of a node from a possible optimal path, unlike other approaches that learn a cost-to-go value. The unfavored nodes are then pruned according to the said distance, which in turn reduces the size of the open list. This ensures that the search explores only the region close to optimal paths while lowering memory and computational costs. Unlike traditional learning methods, our approach is orthogonal to estimating cost-to-go heuristics, offering a complementary strategy for improving search efficiency. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach evaluating it as a standalone search method and in conjunction with learned heuristic functions, achieving comparable-or-better node expansion metrics, while lowering the number of child nodes in the open list. Our code is available at https://github.com/dbokan1/SLOPE.

BACKGROUND Left atrial strain (LAS) analysis represents a newer non-invasive, sensitive and specific technique for assessing left atrial (LA) function and early detection of its deformation and dysfunction. However, its applicability in mitral regurgitation (MR) in pediatric population remains unexplored, raising pertinent questions regarding its potential role in evaluating the severity and progression of the disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of chronic MR in children and adolescents on LA remodeling and function. METHODS The study included 100 participants. Patients with primary and secondary chronic MR lasting at least 5 years fit our inclusion criteria. The exclusion criteria from the study were: patients with functional mitral regurgitation due to primary cardiomyopathies, patients with artificial mitral valve, patients with MR who had previously undergone surgery due to obstructive lesions of the left heart (aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta), patients with significant atrial rhythm disorders (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter). The echocardiographic recordings were conducted by two different cardiologists. Outcome data was reported as mean and standard deviation (SD) or median and interquartile range (Q1-Q3). RESULTS The study included 100 participants, of whom 50 had MR and the remaining 50 were without MR. The average age of all participants was 15.8 ± 1.2 years, with a gender distribution of 37 males and 63 females. There was a significant difference in the values of LA volume index (LAVI), which were higher in patients with MR (p= 0.0001), S/D ratio (and parameters S and D; p= 0.001, p= 0.0001, p= 0.013), mitral annulus radius (p= 0.0001), E/A ratio (p= 0.0001), as well as septal e' (m/s), lateral e' (m/s), and average E/e' ratio, along with the values of TV peak gradient and LV global longitudinal strain (%). There was no significant difference in LA strain parameters, nor in LA stiffness index (LASI). CONCLUSION Our findings revealed significant differences in several echocardiographic parameters in pediatric patients with MR relative to those without MR, providing insight into the multifaceted cardiac structural and functional effects of MR in this vulnerable population.

Talent management is an essential area within human resource management and has been increasingly receiving attention over the past several decades. The focus of talent management is on the most crucial employees within an enterprise. Therefore, it is vital to have a specialized and tailored management system for them to maximize business results. This paper addresses the connection between talent management and enterprise competitiveness. It aims to examine the relationship between these two variables within the business environment of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper significantly contributes to both theory and practice because it proposes a new, more comprehensive process model of talent management based on a detailed analysis and synthesis of all available scientific and research works. Following this, the paper tests the proposed model in practice and measures its success by examining enterprise competitiveness. The research was conducted on 101 service enterprises in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the second quarter of 2023. Managers of service enterprises involved in human resource management were surveyed. The questionnaire was formulated based on a combination of existing research in the specified fields. The data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis, and the research results were presented according to the previously set objectives and hypotheses. The research results showed that talent management is a significant predictor of competitive advantage. Additionally, a positive impact on competitiveness was confirmed for each individual group of talent management activities presented in the proposed process model.

The transition process from fossil fuels to environmentally friendly renewable energy sources carries the risk of creating new environmental damages. Photovoltaic technology represents one of the alternatives with the least risk of harmful environmental impact. However, this technology has two important drawbacks: the significant land occupation for the installation of PV systems and the uncontrollability of production. By constructing floating photovoltaic plants on hydroelectric reservoirs, both of these problems can be reduced to an acceptable level. Some artificial reservoirs, originally built for hydroelectric power plants, have acquired a significant secondary function as recreational areas and fish breeding sites. Therefore, there is justified resistance from the local community to change the existing appearance and purpose of such reservoirs. This paper proposes a completely new concept of integrating the interests of the local community into such objects. In addition to preserving existing uses, the concept also offers new features. This can make the entire system environmentally friendly and sustainable. This paper details the technology behind the construction of floating photovoltaic power plants on artificial reservoirs and emphasizes their various advantages. These benefits include the non-utilization of cultivable land, the ease of assembly and construction, integration into existing power grids, and the potential to address electricity storage issues. For instance, Buško Lake, covering an area of 55.8 km2, may host 2.93 km2 of installed floating photovoltaic (FPV) facilities, enabling a total installed capacity of 240 MW. With an average of 5.5 h of daily sunshine, this totals 2007 annual hours, equivalent to a 55 MW thermal power plant. An analysis showed that, with losses of 18.2%, the average annual production stands at 302 GWh, translating to an annual production value of 18 million € at 60 €/MWh. The integration of this production into an existing hydroelectric power plant featuring an artificial reservoir might boost its output by 91%. The available transmission line capacity of 237 MW is shared between the hydroelectric power plant (HPP) and FPV; hence during the FPV maximum power generation time, the HPP halts its production. HPP Orlovac operates a small number of hours annually at full capacity (1489 h); therefore in combination with the FPV, this number can be increased to 2852 h. This integration maintains the lake’s functions in tourism and fishing while expanding its capabilities without environmental harm.

T. Sagmeister, N. Gubensäk, C. Buhlheller, C. Grininger, M. Eder, An¤ela Ðordic, C. Millán, Ana Medina et al.

Significance S-layer proteins (SLPs) are self-assembling, crystalline proteins coating the cell surfaces of many prokaryotes. This study presents experimental atomic resolution structures of lactobacilli SLPs, deriving functional insight into key probiotic Lactobacillus strains. The structures of SlpA and SlpX proteins highlight the domain swapping critical for SlpX integration, particularly in response to environmental stress. Two binding regions are identified as crucial for attachment of the S-layer to (lipo)teichoic acid. The structure of assembled S-layer provides a foundation for employing (designed) SLPs as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Additionally, it opens broad avenues for the use of SLPs in vaccine development and in crafting nanostructures with tailored properties, including those designed for targeted drug delivery.

A. Greljo, A. E. Thomsen, Hector Tiblom

In our recent attempt to explain flavor hierarchies [1], a gauged SU(2) flavor symmetry acting on left-handed fermions provides a ground to introduce three independent rank-one contributions to the Yukawa matrices: a renormalizable one for the third family, a mass-suppressed one for the second family, and an additional loop-suppressed factor for the first family. Here, we demonstrate how minimal quark-lepton unification \`a la Pati-Salam, relating down-quarks to charged leptons, can significantly improve this mechanism. We construct and thoroughly analyze a renormalizable model, performing a comprehensive one-loop matching calculation that reveals how all flavor hierarchies emerge from a single ratio of two scales. The first signatures may appear in the upcoming charged lepton flavor violation experiments.

A. Greljo, G. Isidori

Flavor deconstruction refers to non-universal gauge extensions where the original gauge symmetry is deconstructed into separate copies, one for each family. A hierarchical chain of symmetry breaking provides an attractive low-scale solution to the flavor puzzle, consistent with flavor-changing neutral currents and finite naturalness. Although successful in explaining the origin of flavor hierarchies in the quark and charged lepton sectors, existing models have struggled with the large and seemingly anarchic mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. This letter identifies conditions under which neutrino anarchy may arise from flavor deconstruction in generic models with right-handed neutrinos. When deconstruction is applied to carefully chosen subgroups of the extended gauge symmetry, hierarchies in the seesaw formula cancel out.

Emir Fejzić, Will Usher

A fast-paced policy context is characteristic of energy and climate research, which strives to develop solutions to wicked problems such as climate change. Funding agencies in the European Union recognize the importance of linking research and policy in climate and energy research. This calls for an increased understanding of how stakeholder engagement can effectively be used to co-design research questions that include stakeholders' concerns. This paper reviews the current literature on stakeholder engagement, from which we create a set of criteria. These are used to critically assess recent and relevant papers on stakeholder engagement in climate and energy projects. We obtained the papers from a scoping review of stakeholder engagement through workshops in EU climate and energy research. With insights from the literature and current EU climate and energy projects, we developed a workshop programme for stakeholder engagement. This programme was applied to the European Climate and Energy Modelling Forum project, aiming to co-design the most pressing and urgent research questions according to European stakeholders. The outcomes include 82 co-designed and ranked research questions for nine specific climate and energy research themes. Findings from the scoping review indicate that papers rarely define the term 'stakeholder'. Additionally, the concepts of co-creation, co-design, and co-production are used interchangeably and often without definition. We propose that workshop planners use stakeholder identification and selection methods from the broader stakeholder engagement literature.

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